Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Pharmacoeconomics and Pharmaceutical Management, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran National Committee on Rational Drug Use, Food and Drug Organization, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran

2 National Committee on Rational Drug Use, Food and Drug Organization, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Community Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Objective: Pharmacists have a remarkable role in rational use of drugs by dissemination 
of drug information to guide patients, physicians, and policy makers. The present study was 
undertaken to evaluate the pharmacists’ view point about the main factors affecting current 
drug use pattern regarding rational drug use and the most effective strategies for improving 
and promoting rational drug use among pharmacists.
Methods: In a cross‑sectional survey, pre‑designed questionnaires were filled in convenient 
sampling by pharmacists who had attended the congress of rational drug use in Tehran, Iran.
Findings: A total of 144 pharmacists with the average age of 40.78 years old were enrolled to 
the study. Data indicated that the most priorities in irrational use of drugs from pharmacists’ 
view point were lack of appropriate cooperation and communication between physicians and 
pharmacists(39%), pharmacists’ low tariff and economic issues (34%), lack of public knowledge 
about drug usage (45%), and lack of supervisory regulations on pharmacy practice (15.8%).
Conclusion: In this study, lack of public knowledge and awareness about appropriate use 
of medicines was the most important element from pharmacists’ viewpoint in occurrence 
of irrational drug use. Dissemination of information and compiling of diverse strategies 
in education, management, regulation, and finance can be very efficient due to a strong 
relationship between drug policies and performance of regulations and supervisions as well 
as drug services.


1. Soleymani F, Valadkhani M, Dinarvand R. Challenges and 
achievements of promoting rational use of drug in Iran. Iran 
J Public Health 2009;38 Suppl 1:166‑8.
2. Ahmadizar F, Soleymani F, Abdollahi M. Study of drug‑drug 
interactions in prescriptions of general practitioners and 
specialists in Iran 2007‑2009. Iran J Pharm Res 2011;10:921‑31.
3. Soleymani F, Shalviri G, Abdollahi M. Pattern of use and 
adverse drug reactions of tramadol: A review of 336,610,664 
insured prescriptions during 5 years. Int J Pharmacol 
4. Council on Credentialing in Pharmacy, Albanese NP, 
Rouse MJ. Scope of contemporary pharmacy practice: Roles, 
responsibilities, and functions of pharmacists and pharmacy 
technicians. J Am Pharm Assoc 2010;50:e35‑69.
5. Hanafi S, Poormalek F, Torkamandi H, Hajimiri M, Esmaeili M, 
Khooie SH, et al. Evaluation of community pharmacists’ 
knowledge, attitude and practice towards good pharmacy 
practice in Iran. J Pharm Care 2013;1:19‑24.
6. Soleymani F, Rashidian A, Dinarvand R, Kebriaeezade A, 
Hosseini M, Abdollahi M. Assessing the effectiveness and 
cost‑effectiveness of audit and feedback on physician’s 
prescribing indicators: Study protocol of a randomized 
controlled trial with economic evaluation. Daru 2012;20:88.
7. Hogerzeil HV. Promoting rational prescribing: An international 
perspective. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1995;39:1‑6.
8. Abdollahiasl A, Kebriaeezadeh A, Nikfar S, Farshchi A, 
Ghiasi G, Abdollahi M. Patterns of antibiotic consumption in 
Iran during 2000‑2009. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2011;37:489‑90.
9. Cheraghali AM, Soleymani F, Behmanesh Y, Rahimi V, 
Hbibipour F, Tirdad R, et al. Physicians’ attitude toward 
injectable medicines. J Pharmacol Toxicol 2006;1:33‑9.
10. Soleymani F, Abdollahi M. Management information 
system in promoting rational drug use. Int J Pharmacol 
11. Farshchi M, Jaberidoost M, Abdollahiasl A, Abdollahi M. 
Efficacies of regulatory policies to control massive use of 
diphenoxylate. Int J Pharmacol 2012;8:459‑62.
12. Nikfar S, Khatibi M, Abdollahi‑Asl M, Abdollahi M. Cost 
and utilization study of antidotes: An Iranian experience. Int 
J Pharmacol 2011;7:46‑9.
13. Cordina M, McElnay JC, Hughes CM. The importance that 
community pharmacists in Malta place on the introduction 
of pharmaceutical care. Pharm World Sci 1999;21:69‑73.
14. Rawlins MD. Extending the role of the community pharmacist. 
BMJ 1991;302:427‑8.
15. Hepler CD, Strand LM. Opportunities and responsibilities in 
pharmaceutical care. Am J Hosp Pharm 1990;47:533‑43.
16. Benjamin H, Smith F, Motawi MA. Drugs dispensed with 
and without a prescription from community pharmacies 
in a conurbation in Egypt. East Meditter Health J 
17. Traulsen JM, Almarsdóttir AB. Pharmaceutical policy and the 
pharmacy profession. Pharm World Sci 2005;27:359‑63.
18. Laing RO, Ruredzo R. The essential drugs program in 
Zimbabwe: New approaches to training. Health Policy Plan 
19. GarjaniA, Salimnejad M, Shamsmohamadi M, Baghchevan V, 
Vahidi RG, Maleki‑Dijazi N, et al. Effect of interactive group 
discussion among physicians to promote rational prescribing. 
East Mediterr Health J 2009;15:408‑15.
20. Freemantle N, Harvey EL, Wolf F, Grimshaw JM, Grilli R, 
Bero LA. Printed educational materials: Effects on professional 
practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1997;2:CD000172.
21. Gray J. Changing physician prescribing behaviour. Can J Clin 
Pharmacol 2006;13:e81‑4.
22. Grimshaw JM, Shirran L, Thomas R, Mowatt G, Fraser C, 
Bero L, et al. Changing provider behavior: An overview of 
systematic reviews of interventions. Med Care 2001;39:II2‑45.