1 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

2 Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Shenandoah University, Winchester, USA

3 Department of Pharmacy Practice, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago


Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of 
B.Sc. Pharmacy students about usage and resistance of antibiotics in Trinidad and Tobago.
Methods: This was a cross‑sectional questionnaire‑based study involving B.Sc. Pharmacy 
students. The questionnaire was divided into five components including Demographics data, 
knowledge about antibiotic use, attitude toward antibiotic use and resistance, self‑antibiotic usage 
and possible causes of antibiotic resistance. Data were analyzed by employing Mann–Whitney 
and Chi‑square tests using SPSS version 20.
Findings: The response rate was 83.07%. The results showed good knowledge of antibiotic 
use among students. The overall attitude of pharmacy students was poor. About 75% of 
participants rarely use antibiotics, whereas self‑decision was the major reason of antibiotic 
use (40.7%) and main source of information was retail pharmacist (42.6%). Common cold and 
flu is a major problem for which antibiotics were mainly utilized by pharmacy students(35.2%).
Conclusion: The study showed good knowledge of pharmacy students regarding antibiotic 
usage. However, students’ attitude towards antibiotic use was poor. The study recommends 
future studies to be conducted with interventional design to improve knowledge and attitude 
of pharmacy students about antibiotic use and resistance.


1. WHO. The Evolving Threat of Antimicrobial Resistance: 
Options for Action; 2012. Available from: http://www.
pdf. [Last cited on 2014 Aug 10].
2. Abera B, Kibret M, Mulu W. Knowledge and beliefs on 
antimicrobial resistance among physicians and nurses in 
hospitals in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 
3. Vila J, Pal T. Update on antimicrobial resistance in low‑income 
countries: Factors favoring the emergence of resistance. Open 
Infect Dis J 2010;4:38‑54.
4. World Health Organization. Global Strategy for the Containment 
of Antimicrobial Resistance. Geneva: WHO; 2001. Available 
Strategy_English.pdf. [Last cited on 2014 Aug 10].
5. Cars O, Nordberg P. Antibiotic resistance – The faceless threat. 
Int J Risk Saf Med 2005;17:103‑10.
6. Grigoryan L, Burgerhof JG, Degener JE, Deschepper R, 
LundborgCS, MonnetDL, et al. Determinants of self‑medication 
with antibiotics in Europe: The impact of beliefs, country 
wealth and the healthcare system. J Antimicrob Chemother 
7. Wright EP, Jain P. Survey of antibiotic knowledge amongst 
final year medical students. J Antimicrob Chemother 
8. Steinberg I. Clinical choices of antibiotics: Judging judicious 
use. Am J Manag Care 2000;6:S1178‑88.
9. JamshedSQ, ElkalmiR, RajiahK, Al‑ShamiAK, ShamsudinSH, 
Siddiqui MJ, et al. Understanding of antibiotic use and 
resistance among final‑year pharmacy and medical students: 
A pilot study. J Infect Dev Ctries 2014;8:780‑5.
10. Khan AK, Banu G, Reshma KK. Antibiotic resistance and 
usage‑A survey on the knowledge, attitude, perceptions and 
practices among the medical students of a Southern Indian 
teaching hospital. J Clin Diagn Res 2013;7:1613‑6.
11. Mungrue K, Brown T, Hayes I, Ramroop S, Thurston P, 
Pereira LP. Drugs in upper respiratory tract infections in 
paediatric patients in North Trinidad. Pharm Pract (Granada) 
12. Kolluru S, Roesch DM, de la Fuente AA. A multi‑instructor, 
team‑based, active‑learning exercise to integrate basic and 
clinical sciences content. Am J Pharm Educ 2012;76:33.
13. Mitsi G, Jelastopulu E, Basiaris H, Skoutelis A, Gogos C. 
Patterns of antibiotic use among adults and parents in the 
community: A questionnaire‑based survey in a Greek urban 
population. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2005;25:439‑43.
14. Azevedo MM, Pinheiro C, Yaphe J, Baltazar F. Portuguese 
students’ knowledge of antibiotics: A cross‑sectional study 
of secondary school and university students in Braga. BMC 
Public Health 2009;9:359.
15. Chambless DL, Hollon SD. Defining empirically supported 
therapies. J Consult Clin Psychol 1998;66:7‑18.